SOLUTIONS

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Different methods for expressing concentration of solution – molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law – Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure – composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties of dilute solutions – relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van’t Hoff factor and its significance.

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