Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom – its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr’s model; Dual nature of matter, de-Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features. Concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions; Variation of t|/ and |/2 with r for Is and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of s, p and d – orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals – aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
STRUCTURE OF ATOM
PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Purification – Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography – principles and their applications. Qualitative analysis – Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens. Quantitative analysis (basic principles only)-…